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Ketogenic diet

A ketogenic (or ‘keto’) diet is an extremely-low carbohydrate diet that is sometimes used as a medical treatment for certain groups of people.

Evidence shows that the diet may be suitable for some people with certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy or type 2 diabetes, but should not be used for the general population, or as a long-term diet.

Last reviewed: May 2018

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Ketogenic Diet | Epilepsy Action Australia

The ketogenic diet is a diet with a strict ratio between fat and protein intake

Read more on Epilepsy Action Australia website

Weight loss and carbohydrates – Better Health Channel

Carbohydrates are essential for a healthy body, so beware of very low-carbohydrate diets.

Read more on Better Health Channel website

Carbohydrates – Glycemic Index Foundation

Discover why carbohydrates are one of the most important sources of energy for our bodies and how much we should be eating.

Read more on Glycemic Index Foundation website

Carbohydrates what you need to know Dietitians Association of Australia

Carbohydrates what you need to know Carbohydrates are an important nutrient we need for fuel

Read more on Dietitians Association of Australia website

What about Glycemic Load? – Glycemic Index Foundation

Information about Glycemic Load and how it’s used. Glycemic Load (or GL) combines both the quantity and quality of carbohydrates.

Read more on Glycemic Index Foundation website

Glycaemic Load (GL) | myVMC

The glycaemic load (GL) is an extension of the GI, taking into account the quantity of carbohydrates as well. The GL is obtained by multiplying the GI value by the carbohydrate content of the food. This provides us with a more accurate picture of the overall effect that the food product has on blood sugar levels.

Read more on myVMC – Virtual Medical Centre website

Hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose) management

Hypoglycaemia occurs when your blood glucose levels are too low (less than 4.0mmol/l).

Read more on Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute website

Exercise to burn fat – myDr.com.au

Find out about which types of exercise are best to burn fat and help you lose weight. To reduce total body fat, focus on increasing your physical activity, rather than decreasing energy consumed.

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The Pre-Event Meal | Nutrition Australia

The pre-competition meal provides a final opportunity to top up the muscle and liver fuel stores. A high-carbohydrate, low fat meal is the best choice. You might like to adapt one of your everyday meals to suit your event timetable, or you may have some special pre-game eating rituals.

Read more on Nutrition Australia website

Diabetes the basics Dietitians Association of Australia

Diabetes the basics A healthy diet is an essential part of diabetes management as it can help to control blood glucose (sugar) levels and achieve a healthy weight

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High-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat tube feeds versus low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat tube feeds for patients with severe burns | Cochrane

High-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat tube feeds versus low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat tube feeds for patients with severe burns

Read more on Cochrane (Australasian Centre) website

Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus | Cochrane

Each year, a significant number of pregnant women around the world develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance or high blood glucose concentration (hyperglycaemia) that starts or is first recognised during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at risk of having instrumental birth and their babies are more likely to be large for gestational age, have a birthweight of at least 4000 grams and experience birth trauma. Although it is widely accepted that dietary counselling is the main strategy for managing women with GDM, it is not clear which dietary therapy is best. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM looking at pregnancy outcomes. A total of nine small randomised trials involving 437 women (444 babies), with outcome data available for 429 women and 436 babies were included in this review. Eleven different types of dietary advice were assessed within six different comparisons, including low- or moderate- glycaemic index (GI) diet compared with high- or mixed-GI diet, low-GI diet compared with high-fibre, moderate-GI diet, energy-restricted diet compared with no energy restriction diet, low-carbohydrate diet compared with high-carbohydrate diet, high-monounsaturated fat diet compared with high-carbohydrate diet, and the standard American Diabetes Association diet providing 20 grams fibre per day compared with fibre-enriched diet providing 80 grams fibre per day. Based on the current available data, we did not find that any one type of dietary advice was more effective than others in reducing the number of births that required instrumental delivery or the number of babies who were large for gestational age or had a birthweight of 4000 grams or more. The included trials had various levels of risk of bias and it remains unclear which diet is the most suitable diet for women with GDM for improving the health of women and their babies in the short and longer term. Larger, well-designed randomised trials are needed.

Read more on Cochrane (Australasian Centre) website

Low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia | Cochrane

There is currently no firm evidence of the long-term (at least six months) effects of low-fat diets for otherwise healthy people with acquired, that is not familial hypercholesterolaemia (high cholesterol levels in the blood). Various low-fat diets have been investigated in people with long-term illnesses, however, a high quality trial of at least six months duration in otherwise healthy people with high blood cholesterol is needed.

Read more on Cochrane (Australasian Centre) website

Interventions for promoting smoke alarm ownership and function | Cochrane

Many people are killed or injured by house fires each year. Fires detected with smoke alarms are associated with lower death rates. This review found that programmes to promote smoke alarms increased smoke alarm ownership and function modestly, if at all, and have not demonstrated a beneficial effect on fires or fire-related injuries. Counselling by health care workers, as part of child health care, may increase ownership and use of smoke alarms in homes but effects on injuries have not been examined. There is little evidence to support community-wide mass media or educational programmes or programmes to give away free smoke alarms as effective methods to promote smoke alarms or reduce injuries from fire. More research is needed to examine community-wide smoke alarm installation programmes.

Read more on Cochrane (Australasian Centre) website

Immunonutrition as an adjuvant therapy for burns | Cochrane

With burn injuries involving a large total body surface area, damage and breakdown of tissues can result in a condition similar to that seen with severe malnourishment. In addition, destruction of the effective skin barrier leads to body temperature dysregulation and increased susceptibility to infection and fluid loss. Previous studies have investigated specific naturally occurring additives to nutritional support, which may lead to an increase in immune system function and therefore a reduction in infection, hospital length of stay and chance of death. These additives are termed immunonutrients and include glutamine, arginine, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil). The authors of this review searched for randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of immunonutrients in patients with severe burn injury.

Read more on Cochrane (Australasian Centre) website

Little evidence that burns patients benefit from hyperbaric oxygen therapy | Cochrane

Burns are very common, sometimes fatal, and have a high impact on the wellbeing of those affected. Recovery is often slow and complicated by infection and scarring. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment designed to increase the supply of oxygen to the burnt area and improve healing. HBOT involves people breathing pure oxygen in a specially designed chamber (such as those used for deep sea divers suffering pressure problems after resurfacing). The review found only two randomised trials, with only a limited number of patients. There was no consistent benefit from HBOT, but one trial did suggest an improvement in healing time. Overall, there is little evidence to support or refute the use of HBOT for burns patients. More research is needed.

Read more on Cochrane (Australasian Centre) website

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