Diagnosis and management of spinal muscular atrophy: Part 1: Recommendations for diagnosis, rehabilitation, orthopedic and nutritional care
We report an update on standards of care recommendations for spinal muscular atrophy.
The paper provides a review of the recent literature.
Expert opinion is provided where there was not enough published evidence.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disorder due to a defect in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Its incidence is approximately 1 in 11,000 live births. In 2007, an International Conference on the Standard of Care for SMA published a consensus statement on SMA standard of care that has been widely used throughout the world. Here we report a two-part update of the topics covered in the previous recommendations. In part 1 we present the methods used to achieve these recommendations, and an update on diagnosis, rehabilitation, orthopedic and spinal management; and nutritional, swallowing and gastrointestinal management. Pulmonary management, acute care, other organ involvement, ethical issues, medications, and the impact of new treatments for SMA are discussed in part 2.
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